History of Punjab | Land of five rivers

The history of Punjab reflects the history of the Punjab region, the northern region of the Indian subcontinent, which is divided between today's India and Pakistan. Historically known as the Sapta Indus or the land of the seven rivers, only two rivers of Sutlej and Beas pass through the state of Punjab in India. The third river Ravi partially flows into Punjab, mainly along the international border between India and Pakistan and then into Pakistan. The other two rivers, Chenab and Jhelum, flow into the Punjab state of Pakistan. These five rivers are tributaries of the Indus river. These five rivers eventually merge directly or indirectly into the Indus and the cessation then ends in the Arabian Sea near the city of Karachi, Pakistan. The ancient Punjab area was the key geographical boundary of the Singh Valley civilization, important for the advanced technologies and utilities used by the people of the region. The area was historically a Hindu-Buddhist area, known for its high activity in academia, technology and the arts. Except for temporary unity under the central capital empire or the invading powers, conflicts between different states were a feature of the time.

After the Islamic State's arrival in India, which had been able to rule for a long period in the history of the region, much of the western Punjab became the center of Islamic culture in the Indian subcontinent. Under Maharaja Ranjit Singh and his Sikh empire, a brief re-emergence of the traditional culture was seen in the Sikh kingdom for a different period, until the British incorporated the area into British rule. After the departure of the British, the territory was divided into a Sikh-majority region, a secular state, and a Muslim-majority region that went to the Islamic State of Pakistan to stop the conflict.

Indus Valley Civilisation

In ancient times, the land of the seven rivers of Punjab was called as Sapt-Singh. Islamic invaders later named Punjab. The seven rivers above were Vista and Vitamasa (Jhelum), Asconi (Chenab), Persian and Aravati (Ravi), Vipasa (Beas) and Satudari (Sutlej). [Citation needed]

It is widely accepted by many scholars [who?] That the oldest human commodity in India is found in the golden valley between the Indus and Jhelum rivers. This period goes back to the first inter-glacial period in the second ice age, where stones and waterfalls have been found.

The valleys of Punjab and the surrounding areas are the ruins of the Singh Valley civilization, also known as the Hupane civilization. These areas are the ruins of thousands of years old cities, [requiring clarification] most commonly known as Harappa, Radhigarhi and Roop. In addition to the above sites, hundreds of old settlements have been found throughout the area, spanning approximately 100 miles. These ancient towns and cities had modern features such as city planning, brick houses, sewerage and drainage systems as well as public baths. The people of Singh Valley also developed a writing system, which to date has not been confused.

Vedic descriptions

Literary evidences of the Vedic age suggest the transition from early childhoods, or tribes, into many tribes and territorial associations. The latter are translated in ol 'ol. These political institutions were represented by Panini, from the Rig Veda to Astalaya. Archaeologically, the time intervals of these institutions coincide with phases, which are also present in the Indo-Gangetic bridge and the upper Ganges basin.

Some of the main masses of Rigveda can be forcefully given to Punjab. Although their distribution patterns are not satisfactory, they are associated with porcini, ascani, sududari, vipas and saraswati. The rivers of Punjab often correspond to the eastern Janapadas. The Rig Vedic people, such as Druce, Anus, Purus, Khadus, Turvas, Bhritas and others were allied to the Punjab and the Indo-Gangetic plains. Other rigs were associated with the Vedic genera such as Pahat, Eleanas, Vincennes and Siwas in the north and west of Punjab.

One of the most important events of the Rig Vedic era was the "Battle of the Tennis Kings" that was fought on the one hand between the tribes of the Trotsu tribe, on the side of the river Parsini (now known as the Ravi River). A clan of ten clans on hand and the other. The ten tribes that formed against the Sudas included the five major tribes: Purus, Druhias, Anus, Turvas, and Yadu; In addition to the five minor children: Patt, Alinas, Announcements, Vincennes and Siv. Sudas was supported by the Vedic Rishi Vasia, while his former pastor, Rishi Vishwamitra, supported the ten-tribe union. Sudas had earlier defeated the breach and expelled him from Hastinapur. Only after Sudas's death did Sanvarna return to his kingdom.
In ancient writings, another battle known as Mahabharata was fought in the battlefield known as Kurukshetra in Punjab. It was fought between the Pandavas and the Kauravas. Duryodhan, a descendant of Kuru (who was the son of Raja Sanvar), tried to insult the Panchali princess Draupadi in return for defeating his ancestor. 

Many of the births were mentioned in the Vedic texts and were confirmed by historical sources in ancient Greece. Except for Gandhara in present-day Afghanistan, most of the tribes which have influenced major regional influence or mahajanapada were raised in the Indo-Gangetic plain. There was widespread contact with business caravans, university students 'transportation and princes' trips throughout all the tribes of ancient India.

Pre-Islamic Punjab was also the center of learning of ancient India, and of many ashram and universities. The most significant of the universities is the study at Tash-Sheila, which was devoted to the study of "three Vedas and 18 branches of knowledge". [Requirement of clarification] In his paradise, he also attracted students from all over India who are from surrounding countries.

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